Philippine ILO
ILO-IPEC in Global ContextIndicative Framework for Philippine ILO ActionPhilippine Child Labour Laws and LegislationNational Survey on Working ChildrenPartnerships in ActionWorking Papers
  Audio-Visual Resources Home page Information Audio-Visual Resources Photo Gallery Site Map




Watching and Listening



Defreezing Exercise:
Helpless This defreezing exercise asks participants to recall an incident in the past when they needed help badly but were unable to get it. The point of the exercise is to make participants approximate the feeling of child laborers who badly need help, but who is to give it? When participants re-live this feeling of helplessness, they are better able to appreciate the helplessness of child laborers, even their unexpressed frustrations when help never comes.

Learning Diary The Learning Diary is a valuable means for participants to record their insights and discoveries for a given training day. In the diary are captured significant points in their learning progress. The diary is thus a chronicle of their growth process, and a document that they can refer to over and over again. Participants are encouraged to be candid and open, expressing freely what they really feel. (This Learning Diary is not a public paper, and participants are free to share with others only what they wish.)

Sharing of Insights
and Learnings Part of the effectiveness of learning in a group is that participants get to share the excitement of discovery. By sharing insights and learnings with each other, they get to enrich their own realizations further. Sharing also allows them to check their own discoveries with those of others, oftentimes resulting in the feeling that they are not alone in what they are going through, pleasant or not. (For the sharing sessions, participants may use the entries in their Learning Diary if they wish.)

Review of Day 1 A good way to transition to another day is through a review of the previous day. A review bridges two training days and shows the connection between past and present activities.

Preview of Day 2 Participants are entitled to know what is going to happen at any particular training day. With this knowledge, participants are better prepared to anticipate the time and energy requirements for the day.

Program Overview:
Specialized Training The training activities and processes thus far represent an extended preparatory phase or defreeze. This is aimed at touching the guts of participants and enhancing their openness to__ and eventually their buy-in__ of the entire program. At this point, participants are given an overview of the entire training program that they are to undertake. The three-module structure which includes the alternating practicum periods are presented and the objectives of each module explained.

ILO Training Guide, pp. 5-8
Handout: Specialized Training on Child Labor

The Learning Contract In this mini-ceremony, participants read and sign a contract which details their responsibilities to their co-learners, trainors, and themselves. They also express their commitment to learn all that they can from this training program for the cause of the child.

Handout: Learning Contract

The Labor Inspector
and Child Labor In a workshop format, participants look into their individual and collective roles as labor inspectors under the Child Labor Program. For each role identified, helping and hindering factors are listed and discussed. Participants are encouraged to look at their individual and collective roles even beyond their official capacity as labor inspectors. The discussion points of the various groups are then presented to the rest of the class, and key learnings brought out as the experience is processed.

Watching and
Listening to
Working Children Fresh from their own articulation of their roles in helping the child laborers, the participants are provided key macro and definitional information about the problem. This lecturette/discussion dwells on statistical information on child labor, definitions, classifications of child labor, types of child labor, and other pertinent information that anyone desiring to help in this effort must know about.

ILO Training Guide, pp. 9-42
Handouts: Children of the Philippines (NSO)
Statistics on Child Labor in Asia
The Indirect Exploitation of Children
(5 diagrams)
Types of Child Labor
Children Caught Up in a Complex Network of Employment Relationships
Child Labor by Sector and Trade

Using the Observation
Guide Participants are told that one of the important missing links in the effort to eliminate child labor is the lack of information about the child laborers working in establishments. This is an area where the labor inspectors are in a unique position to help. Thus it is important that they acquire concepts and skills that will enable them to gather information about the children they encounter at work in an orderly and systematic manner. In this portion participants are taught the concept of the ZOOM Approach for observing the child at work and the use of the Observation Guide for documenting their observations. The benefits of using the Observation Guide are presented, and its value as a tool for watching and listening activities discussed. Reservations of participants about its use are also taken up. It is important to emphasize here that the Observation Guide complements the inspection report forms they are currently using, and does not contradict it.

ILO Training Guide, pp. 159-171
Handouts: The ZOOM Approach
Observation Guide
Observation Guide: Supplemental Information
Standardized Symbols and Process Plans

Sharpening Observation
Skills This is a set of exercises designed to sharpen skills in watching and listening.

Handouts: To be designed

Interviewing Children One of the most effective ways of gathering high-quality information about the children at work is by talking with them. But it is not easy interviewing children. To be successful, one needs the right skills, framework, and approaches. Thus the conceptual framework for interviewing children, approaches to interviewing, and the physical and psychological climate of interviews are discussed in this session. Participants are challenged to come up with their own creative ways of approaching and talking with children.

ILO: The Working Child: Psychosociological Approach
Handouts: The Child Laborer in an Interview Situation
Climate in an Interview Situation
Interview Guide with Working Children
Summary Notes on Interviewing

Interview Models Models of interviews with children are presented and discussed. These models come in both written form and as audiovisual presentations. Audio cassette tapes may also be used.

Handouts: Handouts and audiovisuals to be developed

Interview Role-Plays The role-play is a very good tool for providing practice in developing skills. Here participants are assigned roles which they act out from prepared scripts. It is important to let participants know the objectives of any role-play to be done because in the absence of such knowledge they are often tempted to focus on other things such as acting. The key learning points here are how well the interview is structured, how the questioning proceeds, how the children are encouraged to talk about themselves, how climate is established and maintained. These are important over and above whether acting is good or players say their lines well.

Briefing on Plant Visits Participants are briefed on the objectives of the plant visits scheduled the following day. Logistical arrangements are also discussed.

Handout: Plant Visits

Learning Reinforcement

Synthesis of the Day's

See the activities for the next day.


Copyright © 1998 Philippine ILO. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of Philippine ILO is prohibited.